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Submitted by: R Thotakura
Continued from Part 1 ….
Something reverse can happen which would be even more damaging than the just discussed case. Instead of Consumption growing at a faster rate than Savings, it might so happen that Savings and Investment grow at a much faster rate than Consumption. For example, prior to Great Depression, the importance of aggregate demand as explained by Keynes was not understood. As a result government policies normally favored huge Investments and were not geared towards propelling aggregate demand. It is well documented that one of the reasons for the Great Depression was US government policies which led to uneven distribution of income heavily in favor of the rich and the consequent depletion of the buying power of the households. So Great depression could have easily resulted from Investment/Savings growing at a much faster rate than Consumption. Huge Investment/Savings would mean that huge surpluses are realized by the producers of the Consumption sector. This would prompt them to invest in an even bigger way in plant and machinery and this huge Investment/surplus pattern continues for a few years. After a few years, we have huge capacities with insufficient Consumption or buying power!
The capacities of production rise to an extent where the producers would not really be interested in investing their surpluses as they already have huge unutilized capacities much in excess of the buying power of the households. As a result Savings are not invested i.e. Investment lags behind Savings. Money is hoarded, the circular flow of income in the economy stops and the economy gets paralyzed. Demand gets constricted which in turn constricts Supply. These constrictions worsen the situation even more because, on account of drop in production, the percentage of unutilized capacities increases even more than before which makes Investment in new capacities even more unattractive further increasing the hoarded money. The economy gets involved in a vicious downward spiral that can dramatically reduce incomes and severely aggravate unemployment. Ultimately after a few years, some huge Investment opportunity prompts entrepreneurs to start investing all of the Savings and the economy restarts on the expansionary path. Or it can so happen that the huge excess capacities get destroyed on account of lack of demand for example, some new technology makes plants with older technology unsuitable to the new needs and such plants and factories become useless. This way excess capacity is weeded out making the economy conducive for Investment and growth. I believe that most business cycles in US and Europe prior to 1930s occurred in this way, they were all mostly Investment propelled. I would call those cycles the
Investment led Business cycles
occur? During the Consumption led cycles, after several years of growth, Consumption eats away into Savings and surpluses realized would fall short of expectations for the producers of Consumption sector. Savings are low and a correction is required by cutting Consumption and increasing the Savings. The extent of correction defines the strength of the next boom. If the correction is big and Savings are piled up in a large manner during the downturn, then, at the beginning of the next boom, it gives the chance for Consumption to nibble away at Savings slowly and steadily for a large number of years booms can last very long. If the correction is very small, if Savings are not too large at the beginning of the boom, the boom is then nipped in the bud itself. As there are no large Savings made, as soon as Consumption tries to nibble away Savings, Savings would immediately fall below the danger mark and the surpluses expected by the Consumption sector are not realized and a recession would start as immediately as the boom starts. In such cases, the booms might not last for more than one or two years. Such cases of insufficient corrections can occur on account of government intervention. Government tries to arrest the downward slide by trying to propel the aggregate demand using expansionary policies such as cutting down interest rates or indulging in deficit spending. Government s intention in doing so would be to arrest the downward slide and decrease unemployment. However the effect of the government intervention would be that, economy starts expanding even before the Consumption is cut and Savings are increased to the required extent. As the economy starts expanding, Consumption tries to eat away at Savings and this immediately brings the Savings below the danger level and an immediate onset of recession. More workers are fired and a downward slide starts once again. Once again the government intervenes and tries to arrest the slide and once again the same thing would repeat itself and more workers are fired. Unemployment keeps soaring. Ultimately the producers realize that low surpluses are here to stay along with expansion.
Apart from low surpluses there is the problem of rising interest rates. As the economy tries to expand, there would be good amount of Investment demand. However as Savings are low and Investment demand is high, there is a huge demand for the limited funds available causing the interest rates to rise vertically. Government borrowing and deficit spending in order to boost the economy eats into the already low Savings and aggravates the situation even further. The situation mimics that of a boom time when both short term and long term interest rates are very high. Abnormally high interest rates lead to cost-led inflation. Very high interest rates coupled with low surpluses make Investment as well as production expansion unattractive to the producers of the Consumption sector. They start pocketing their profits without either investing or expanding production and the economy starts stagnating without growth. Under normal circumstances, pocketing of profits would lead to hoarding of money and paralyze the economy on account of stoppage in the circulation of money. However in this case, on account of government s expansionary policies as well as cost-led inflation, capitalists do not hoard the money as money would lose its value on account of inflation. They start spending the pocketed profits and the circulation of money is not disrupted.
However the demand does not increase despite the lack of hoarding why? What should have been saved and invested is now being spent directly by the capitalists. The income that would have reached the hands of a hundred Investment workers is now in the hands of a single capitalist. As a result, where hundred toothpastes would have been purchased by hundred Investment workers, only one toothpaste is purchased by the solitary capitalist! As a result the demand for goods suffers despite the fact that money is not being hoarded. Capitalists are high earners; they consume a small portion of their income and start spending the rest of their income on speculation in real estate and shares. Shares and lands are bought and re-bought at higher and higher rates leading to a speculative bubble and soaring inflation. Housing becomes very costly and the workers find their buying power reduced as a large portion of their incomes goes in providing housing for themselves. Workers then start demanding for higher wages and periodic wage hike agreements become part of the wage agreements making inflation a relatively permanent phenomenon. Unlike what some economists say about the unreasonability of wage hike demands by labor unions, the wage hike demands of workers were actually beneficial to the stagflationary economies of the 70s. The hike demands of workers actually act as some sort of a small check on the speculation of capitalists instead of wild speculation, some money in the hands of the capitalists gets diverted towards wage hikes. Overall, stagnation and inflation co-exist together. This is how you get
There was a
for two decades in US and other nations during the 80s and 90s. How could the booms last so long during this period? The booms during this period were Investment led. Huge amounts of Investments in IT infrastructure propelled these booms. However these huge Investments in IT are completely different from those that propelled the Investment led booms prior to 1930s. The huge Investments prior to 1930s led to piling up of new capacities in a big way. This gave in to the chance of there being over-Investment on account of huge unutilized capacities which ultimately led to further Investment being unattractive thereby resulting in Investment lagging behind Savings. However the Investment of the 80s and 90s was not that way. Investment in IT technology did not increase the plant capacities. For example, more cars cannot be produced just because car companies invest huge sums in IT. Therefore depressions of the type that occurred prior to 1930s are ruled out and the boom lasts as long as the IT spending lasts. Why couldn t Consumption eat into Savings during this period? On account of the fear of being replaced by computers, the bargaining power of the workers reduced dramatically upon which wage led and the subsequent cost led inflations were completely absent. Therefore producers could save their surpluses and invest them without having to spend them on increasing costs. Also the prime reason for Investment in IT being cost cutting, cost cutting ensured that Consumption would never eat into Savings. This way neither Consumption would eat into Savings nor would Savings/Investment lead to excess capacities. Both types of downturns are ruled out. Booms would last as long as the IT spending would last. This is how booms lasted so long during the 80s and the 90s leading to a virtual absence of business cycles.
That roughly sums up two and half centuries of
A small note before closing out. From the capitalists point of view, it would be great if the households immediately spend all that they earn on Consumption sales would get boosted. So household savings make a dent or a hole in Consumption. This hole is then filled by the immediate Investment of those household Savings. So the phenomenon of investing the household Savings is like digging a hole and filling it up. Therefore household Savings do not affect the financial position of an economy as much as the Capitalist Savings. A shrinkage in household Savings would not directly affect the margins of the firms. So just make a mental note that the above discussion on Savings had more to do with Capitalist Savings and less to do with Household Savings.
2005 Thotakura R,US registration:TXU 1-256-191
About the Author: Thotakura R is the originator a new revolutionary economic model called “Threeway Economics” that demystifies the longstanding mysteries of capitalism to a great level of detail including Business Cycles,Inverted Yield Curves,Inflations,Price/Wage rigidities. To learn more, Visit his site at:
Friday, August 24, 2007
Just before midnight Wednesday, four-year-old Taylor Bailey, nicknamed Bucky, was attacked by a neighbor’s dog. The Staffordshire Bull Terrier mix named Money chased the boy after he stepped out of his mother’s car, eventually knocking the boy to the ground and latching onto his leg.
The same dog had bitten the boy’s father the week before, according to the family, although this has not been confirmed by police. He recognized the dog and alerted his mother to the dogs presence just moments before the attack. She urged her son to come to her, but the one-year-old, 85-pound (~39 kg) male broke free from his restraints and attacked the screaming boy.
The struggle lasted several minutes before the boy’s mother, Melinda Walters, was able to fight off the dog, leaving her knees scraped and thigh scratched. The boy’s legs were punctured, scratched and bruised with bits of flesh missing. “It didn’t go away. It was just trying to grab me … trying to kill me,” the boy said. Walters was carrying her three-year-old son Jason on her hip during much of the fight.
The dog’s owner, Marquita Mooney, 23, was ticketed along with a relative who was watching the dog. She said that rather than register the dog as a potentially dangerous animal—which involves an insurance bond, fees, kennel requirements and more—she would have the dog put down. Police reports indicate that the dog bit two other dogs about two weeks ago. Mooney has been ticketed for both incidents.
This is the second such incident in Minneapolis this month—seven-year-old Zach King Jr. was attacked and killed in his home last week by his family’s pit bull—fueling the debate over banning pit bulls and other “dangerous breeds” in some communities. Since 1966, there have been four other deaths from dog attacks in Minnesota, all but one of which were of children seven-years-old or younger.
Tuesday, January 1, 2008
Today at midnight, the Republic of Cyprus and the Republic of Malta, both small island states in the Mediterranean and former British colonies, adopted the euro as their official currency; less than four years after their accession to the European Union. Because Cyprus and Malta are in different time zones, Cyprus adopted the euro one hour before Malta did the same. In both countries the euro was welcomed with outdoor celebrations, including a fireworks display in Malta’s capital Valletta. According to the BBC Cypriot Finance Minister Michalis Sarris has said the euro “will benefit consumers and businesses alike because of the eurozone’s low inflation, low interest rates and large market.”
The BBC reports that Cypriot and Maltese leaders “made symbolic withdrawals of euros from cash machines just minutes into the New Year.” TIME reports that Maltese Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi had to wait a little while before getting his hands on the new currency because “an automated teller machine did not work when Gonzi tried to withdraw euros, and he was obliged to use a different ATM.”
The Cypriot pound (CYP) and the Maltese lira (MTL) will remain in use during a dual circulation period that will last until the end of this month, at which point they will cease to be legal tender. However, it will still be possible to exchange them for Euro free of charge after the end of this period. Commercial banks in Cyprus will exchange Cypriot pounds for Euro until 30 June, but only for amounts up to CYP 1000 per customer and per transaction in banknotes and up to CYP 5O in coins. The Central Bank of Cyprus will exchange coins until the end of 2009 and banknotes until the end of 2017. Maltese commercial banks will exchange Maltese lira for Euro until the end of March, with a limit for non-customers of MTL 250, whereas the Central Bank of Malta will exchange coins until 1 February 2010 and banknotes until 1 February 2018.
|We’re sorry to say goodbye to our pound but happy to welcome the euro.|
The single currency has replaced the Cypriot pound and the Maltese lira at a rate of one euro to 0.585274 Cypriot pound and 0.4293 to the Maltese lira, or 1.71 euro per Cypriot pound and 2.33 per Maltese lira. This conversion rate had been fixed on 10 July 2007 by Ecofin, the council comprising the finance ministers of the EU Member States.
|Today with the adoption of the Euro, Cyprus and Malta have become even more integrated in the heart of the European Union, less than four years after they joined the EU.|
Cyprus and Malta are the 14th and the 15th country to join the Eurozone, which already includes Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Spain, Greece and Slovenia. All EU Member States are required to join the Eurozone once certain conditions are fulfilled, except Denmark and the United Kingdom which have negotiated a so-called opt-out that allows them not to adopt the single currency.
The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, the de facto independent Turkish-controlled area in the north of Cyprus, will not join the Eurozone. Northern Cyprus is not part of the European Union and is recognised only by Turkey. As a result, the Turkish lira will remain the official currency in the north of the island; however, TIME reports that “many Turkish Cypriot merchants will also accept euros along with Turkish lira.” Cypriot Euro coins are inscribed in both Greek and Turkish.
The euro will also be legal tender in the Sovereign Base Areas, British military bases in Cyprus.
The national sides of the Cypriot Euro coins feature three separate designs for the three series of coins. The 1, 2 and 5-cent coins feature the mouflon, or wild sheep, the 10, 20 and 50-cent coins feature the Kyrenia ship, the wreck of a 4th century BC Greek merchant ship discovered in 1967 and salvaged closed to Kyrenia, and the €1 and €2 coins feature the Idol of Pomos, a prehistoric sculpture from the village of Pomos, three national symbols of Cyprus. The designs were jointly created by Tatiana Soteropoulos and Erik Maell.
The Maltese euro coins’ national sides will also feature national motifs. The 1, 2 and 5-cent coins will feature the altar of the Mnajdra temple grouping, a complex of three Neolithic temples on the southern coast of Malta and one of the oldest free-standing temple groupings in the world, the 10, 20 and 50-cent coins will feature the Coat of Arms of Malta, and the €1 and €2 coins will bear the Maltese cross, a symbol associated with an order of Christian warriors known as the Knights Hospitaller or Knights of Malta, which was based on Malta for more than 250 years after they had been given the islands by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The designs of Maltese engraver Noel Galea Bason were selected after two rounds of public consultations in which people were invited to vote via SMS.
Both Cyprus and Malta have taken a number of steps to address fears of undue price rises. 7,130 Cypriot companies have subscribed to a Fair Pricing Code launched by the authorities and the Cypriot government urged companies to round their prices down. In Malta, the FAIR initiative, a fair pricing scheme, was put in place in January 2007. This scheme, which provides for administrative fines for those failing to respect their commitment, now involves 80% of all retail outlets. Malta, according to the BBC, has also signed 12 price stabilisation agreements with importers, which will last until March 2008.
In both countries, the authorities will monitor retailers to ensure they do not exploit the changeover for unfair gain by rounding up their prices, contributing to inflation.
Wednesday, December 7, 2005
Australian researchers say they have scientifically proven that stress causes sickness. The Garvan Institute in Sydney has discovered that a hormone, known as neuropeptide Y (NPY) is released into the body during times of stress. Their findings show the hormone can stop the immune system from functioning properly.
“Neuropeptide Y is one of those hormones that gets unregulated or released from neurones when stressful situations occur…it’s known for example that it regulates blood pressure and heart rates so your heart rate goes up but it hasn’t been known that it actually can affect immune cells as well,” said Professor Herbert Herzog, one of the researchers.
Herzog feels it is good to finally have proof of something people have suspected for so long.
“Now we have proven without doubt that there is a direct link and that stress can weaken the immune system and that makes you more vulnerable when you for example have a cold or flu and even in the more serious situations such as cancer can be enhanced in these situations,” said Herzog.
The Garvan Institute study centres on two key events that enable the human body to recognise foreign substances and control invaders. When our body encounters a pathogen (bacteria and viruses), the immune cells retain and interrogate suspects. Their activation is made possible by NPY. These cells then return to the lymph nodes, which are found all over the body, with information about the foreign invaders. The lymph nodes are where decisions about defence are made.
“Most of us expect to come down with a cold or other illness when we are under pressure, but until now we have mostly had circumstantial evidence for a link between the brain and the immune system,” said lead Garvan researcher, associate Professor Fabienne Mackay. “During periods of stress, nerves release a lot of NPY and it gets into the bloodstream, where it directly impacts on the cells in the immune system that look out for and destroy pathogens (bacteria and viruses) in the body.”
In the case of bacteria and viruses, TH1 cells are part of the attack team that is sent out on the ‘search and destroy’ mission. But when their job is done they need to be turned ‘off’ and the immune system reset. The same hormone, NPY, that activates the sentry cells now prompts the TH1 cells to slow down and die.
“Under normal conditions, circulating immune cells produce small amounts of NPY, which enables the immune cells on sentry duty and the TH1 immune cells to operate – it’s a yin and yang kind of situation. But too much NPY means that the TH1 attack is prevented despite the foreign invaders being identified – and this is what happens during stress,” added McKay.
The impact of stress on the body has been observed in athletes. Ph. D researcher at the University of Queensland, Luke Spence, together with the Australian Institute of Sport, studied elite and recreational athletes over five months.
They found elite athletes were more susceptible to respiratory diseases under stress.
“A lot of elite athletes put themselves through vast amounts of physical stress in their training, but also their emotional, psychological stress of feeling the pressure of Australia on their shoulders, wanting to compete and wanting to do their best,” said Spence.
It’s not just athletes who are prone to stress. Pressures at work and at home may cause emotional and mental stress that can be equally damaging. Almost a third of all work absenteeism in Australia is due to illness, costing employers over $10 billion a year.
“I think it has a huge impact for the work force and also for employers – if their employees are constantly stressed, constantly under pressure, they are more likely to get sick,” Spence said.
Further research could lead to the development of new drugs which may inhibit the action of the neuropeptide Y hormone.
Herzog warns people to minimise stress before it becomes a problem.
“Relaxation methods like yoga will help you to prevent that but there will still be people out there that are not responding to that and treatment by interfering with the system will be important,” he said. “There’s obviously some time until such a treatment will be available but this is something we will definitely work towards.”
The Garvan research will be published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 202, No. 11.
Of all the careers that you can choose from, one of the most lucrative and rewarding is real estate. The benefits of being a real estate agent are innumerable and include job flexibility, a unique and demanding work environment, and you get to experience rewarding moments for homeowners who have just found their dream homes. In terms of becoming a real estate agent, you will first need to complete a real estate agent certification course. Here are the top five reasons to complete your real estate education using internet real estate courses.
Another benefit of internet real estate courses is that they can be completed anywhere. If you have a mobile device such as a smartphone or a tablet, you can complete your real estate training while you wait at the doctors’ office, while you sit in the dentist’s chair for a cleaning, or while you are at the park with your kids.
Every person going through internet real estate courses to become licensed as a real estate agent will learn in different ways. One of the benefits of an online course is that you are not tied down to a classroom listening to a lecture and trying to learn from someone else’s point of view. With online courses, you have the option of learning the way that works best for you. In addition, if you do not understand a concept the first time, you can always go back and work through it again.
People learn in different ways and at different speeds. If all the time you have to commit to studying and going through your course one day is five minutes between errands, then that is okay. You complete the course on your own time. This contributes to a much higher success rate since you are better able to focus when you need to focus and not stress about it when you have other worries.
The nature of internet real estate courses is that they are extremely personalized and custom to everyone that goes through them for their real estate education. Whether you work best through reading and studying study guides or going through story problems and real life situations, there is a place for you learning what you need to know about real estate through an online study and testing environment.
If you have always dreamed of becoming a real estate agent, now is the time to start looking at internet real estate courses. Internet real estate courses are beneficial to you in terms of time, money, and by providing a more effective and productive learning environment for a variety of learners. Visit RealEstateOnlineLearning.com.
The time is 23:00 (UTC) on July 18th, 2006 and this is Audio Wikinews News Briefs.
Thursday, December 18, 2008
A team of eight transplant surgeons in Cleveland Clinic in Ohio, USA, led by reconstructive surgeon Dr. Maria Siemionow, age 58, have successfully performed the first almost total face transplant in the US, and the fourth globally, on a woman so horribly disfigured due to trauma, that cost her an eye. Two weeks ago Dr. Siemionow, in a 23-hour marathon surgery, replaced 80 percent of her face, by transplanting or grafting bone, nerve, blood vessels, muscles and skin harvested from a female donor’s cadaver.
The Clinic surgeons, in Wednesday’s news conference, described the details of the transplant but upon request, the team did not publish her name, age and cause of injury nor the donor’s identity. The patient’s family desired the reason for her transplant to remain confidential. The Los Angeles Times reported that the patient “had no upper jaw, nose, cheeks or lower eyelids and was unable to eat, talk, smile, smell or breathe on her own.” The clinic’s dermatology and plastic surgery chair, Francis Papay, described the nine hours phase of the procedure: “We transferred the skin, all the facial muscles in the upper face and mid-face, the upper lip, all of the nose, most of the sinuses around the nose, the upper jaw including the teeth, the facial nerve.” Thereafter, another team spent three hours sewing the woman’s blood vessels to that of the donor’s face to restore blood circulation, making the graft a success.
The New York Times reported that “three partial face transplants have been performed since 2005, two in France and one in China, all using facial tissue from a dead donor with permission from their families.” “Only the forehead, upper eyelids, lower lip, lower teeth and jaw are hers, the rest of her face comes from a cadaver; she could not eat on her own or breathe without a hole in her windpipe. About 77 square inches of tissue were transplanted from the donor,” it further described the details of the medical marvel. The patient, however, must take lifetime immunosuppressive drugs, also called antirejection drugs, which do not guarantee success. The transplant team said that in case of failure, it would replace the part with a skin graft taken from her own body.
Dr. Bohdan Pomahac, a Brigham and Women’s Hospital surgeon praised the recent medical development. “There are patients who can benefit tremendously from this. It’s great that it happened,” he said.
Leading bioethicist Arthur Caplan of the University of Pennsylvania withheld judgment on the Cleveland transplant amid grave concerns on the post-operation results. “The biggest ethical problem is dealing with failure — if your face rejects. It would be a living hell. If your face is falling off and you can’t eat and you can’t breathe and you’re suffering in a terrible manner that can’t be reversed, you need to put on the table assistance in dying. There are patients who can benefit tremendously from this. It’s great that it happened,” he said.
Dr Alex Clarke, of the Royal Free Hospital had praised the Clinic for its contribution to medicine. “It is a real step forward for people who have severe disfigurement and this operation has been done by a team who have really prepared and worked towards this for a number of years. These transplants have proven that the technical difficulties can be overcome and psychologically the patients are doing well. They have all have reacted positively and have begun to do things they were not able to before. All the things people thought were barriers to this kind of operations have been overcome,” she said.
The first partial face transplant surgery on a living human was performed on Isabelle Dinoire on November 27 2005, when she was 38, by Professor Bernard Devauchelle, assisted by Professor Jean-Michel Dubernard in Amiens, France. Her Labrador dog mauled her in May 2005. A triangle of face tissue including the nose and mouth was taken from a brain-dead female donor and grafted onto the patient. Scientists elsewhere have performed scalp and ear transplants. However, the claim is the first for a mouth and nose transplant. Experts say the mouth and nose are the most difficult parts of the face to transplant.
In 2004, the same Cleveland Clinic, became the first institution to approve this surgery and test it on cadavers. In October 2006, surgeon Peter Butler at London‘s Royal Free Hospital in the UK was given permission by the NHS ethics board to carry out a full face transplant. His team will select four adult patients (children cannot be selected due to concerns over consent), with operations being carried out at six month intervals. In March 2008, the treatment of 30-year-old neurofibromatosis victim Pascal Coler of France ended after having received what his doctors call the worlds first successful full face transplant.
Ethical concerns, psychological impact, problems relating to immunosuppression and consequences of technical failure have prevented teams from performing face transplant operations in the past, even though it has been technically possible to carry out such procedures for years.
Mr Iain Hutchison, of Barts and the London Hospital, warned of several problems with face transplants, such as blood vessels in the donated tissue clotting and immunosuppressants failing or increasing the patient’s risk of cancer. He also pointed out ethical issues with the fact that the procedure requires a “beating heart donor”. The transplant is carried out while the donor is brain dead, but still alive by use of a ventilator.
According to Stephen Wigmore, chair of British Transplantation Society’s ethics committee, it is unknown to what extent facial expressions will function in the long term. He said that it is not certain whether a patient could be left worse off in the case of a face transplant failing.
Mr Michael Earley, a member of the Royal College of Surgeon‘s facial transplantation working party, commented that if successful, the transplant would be “a major breakthrough in facial reconstruction” and “a major step forward for the facially disfigured.”
In Wednesday’s conference, Siemionow said “we know that there are so many patients there in their homes where they are hiding from society because they are afraid to walk to the grocery stores, they are afraid to go the the street.” “Our patient was called names and was humiliated. We very much hope that for this very special group of patients there is a hope that someday they will be able to go comfortably from their houses and enjoy the things we take for granted,” she added.
In response to the medical breakthrough, a British medical group led by Royal Free Hospital’s lead surgeon Dr Peter Butler, said they will finish the world’s first full face transplant within a year. “We hope to make an announcement about a full-face operation in the next 12 months. This latest operation shows how facial transplantation can help a particular group of the most severely facially injured people. These are people who would otherwise live a terrible twilight life, shut away from public gaze,” he said.
Monday, March 19, 2007
At least 10 pets, 9 cats and 1 dog have died as a result of eating contaminated pet food, says the United States Food and Drug Administration, or FDA. The contamination caused cats and dogs to both go into kidney failure.
At least 51 brands of cat food and 40 brands of dog food have been recalled. The manufacturer of the food is Menu Foods, which is based in Mississauga, Ontario in Canada. The brands include: Iams, Nutro, and Eukanuba pet foods. Nestle, Purina PetCare Co., Procter & Gamble and Hill’s Pet Nutrition Inc. are voluntarily recalling their pet foods as a precaution. The FDA says that only wet food has been reported to have caused the deaths. The food was sold between December of 2006 and March 3 of 2007. The recall includes pouches and cans of wet food that total over 60 million.
“We are still trying to find out what the true picture is out there of animals. We’re talking about 1 percent of the pet food [supply] and it’s really just impossible to extrapolate at this point,” reported the FDA’s head veterinarian, Stephen F. Sundlof.
The manufacturer is currently performing tests to determine what might have caused the contamination, but so far, the source has not been identified.
“We’re testing and testing, but we can’t identify the problem in the product,” said Sarah Tuite, a spokeswoman for Menu Foods.
Anywhere from 40 to 50 cats and dogs were fed the contaminated food during testing by Menu Foods, and at least seven of those animals died. The species or how many cats or dogs died during testing is not known.
The FDA says that the possible cause of the contamination could be from heavy metals, lead or fungi inside wheat gluten which is used in pet foods as a “filler.”
A complete list of the products recalled can be found here: Menu Foods Recall List. Pet owners are urged to stop using any and all food on that list that may still be in their home. Owners are also asked to seek immediate veterinarian attention if the pets are suspected of eating the food.
The recall could cost over 30 million USD.
Medical And Nursing Uniform Buying Guide
John MorrisAre you feeling slightly apprehensive about the new direction your life has taken? Obtaining a medical and nursing degree is a challenging goal; your success is dependent on numerous factors, both small and big things, and buying the right uniform is one of the things that could ultimately affect your chances to become a medical or nursing professional.
Lack of Uniformity
Most companies, even hospitals, prefer their employees to be dressed uniformly, because they look better, and more easily identifiable, a problem that is common to large organizations. If youre not wearing the right uniform, your superiors may actually forget youre studying or working for them!
Most people still unfairly judge others on the basis of their appearance alone; you may find yourself gaining a bad impression solely because you bought the wrong choice of uniform.
Work Penalties You may be forced to pay penalties or dues for something that could have been avoided in the first place.
Asking for Proper Instructions
The best way to know what type of medical or nursing uniform to buy is asking the right people for instruction. While any information provided by your peers and colleagues is of course welcomed and more easily obtainable, its still better to ask your superiors about the proper uniform to buy.
Some hospitals allow their employees to have liberty on the choice of fabric, length and type of medical uniform to wear while other hospitals and medical institutions can be very strict about the proper attire for employees. Avoid making any costly mistake simply by asking questions.
Where to Buy Medical and Nursing Uniforms
A number of hospitals, clinics, medical institutions and schools have their own stores that sell uniforms, text books and other supplies to its employees and students; if your school or workplace has one, thats probably the best place to buy your uniform
Instead of an in-house shop, your company or school may simply be affiliated with a certain shop; you can ask your superior if they have one. Its better to purchase your uniform from a recommended shop because they already know what and what not to do when you commission them to make your uniform.
Malls and Other Boutiques
If your workplace or university is not fussy at all about the type of uniform youll wear, as long as its of the proper color or length, you can most probably purchase a ready-made nursing uniform at any mall, retail outlet or any boutique or shop that specializes in producing and selling uniforms.
You can also browse the Internet for online stores selling medical and nursing uniforms; make sure you compare rates before buying anything.
Ready Made vs. Customized Uniforms
Ready made uniforms are generally cheaper than customized ones because of the economies of scale. Available sizes however may be limited to S, M, L and XL. Anything less or more than those sizes would have to be custom-made.
Custom-made uniforms may only be cheaper than ready made uniforms IF you find a couturier willing to charge low labor fees. At any case, custom-made uniforms usually have a better fit because the exact proportions of the user have been taken into consideration.
Factors to Consider
Most medical uniforms are either made from cotton or linen. Its important to choose a fabric thats comfortable to wear at any time of the day and even for long hours. Its also better to choose a fabric thats easy to clean because saving lives can sometimes be a messy job.
Be sure to ask what colors are appropriate; if none have been specified, white is the most common and safest choice while dark colors can hide most stains from view.
Again, make sure that you follow guidelines if there are any; this will only be important if you prefer to wear a skirt, rather than pants, as the bottom pair for your uniform. Make sure that the length is appropriate for work use.
Its always better to use a plain or simple design for a medical or nursing uniform, because youre there as a professional, and not as a social butterfly.
Be sure to try the uniform before allowing the last stitches to be made. Its better to stay from tight-fitting uniforms because they tend to restrict your movements.
For more great nursing uniform related articles and resources check out