Curiosity Rover analysis suggests chemically complex lake once graced Mars’s Gale crater

Sunday, June 4, 2017

In an analysis published on Friday in Science, scientists announced data collected from the Curiosity Rover show that Mars’s Gale Crater was once a chemically stratified lake, meaning the aquatic environment differed markedly between deep and shallow water. According to the report, “all of the physical, chemical, and energetic conditions necessary to establish a habitable environment were present on Mars between ~3.8 billion and 3.1 billion years ago.”

Composite self-portrait of the Curiosity Rover, taken in 2012Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Malin Space Science Systems.

Analysis shows the chemical index of alteration fluctuated over time in a way that suggested the lake varied between hot, wet periods and colder, drier periods. The shallow water would have been rich in oxidants brought in from the atmosphere and groundwater, and the deeper water would have been oxidant poor. Phosphates, carbon, nitrogen, iron and sulfur, indicating chemistry suitable for life, have also been found there in a variety of compounds.

Lead author Joel Hurowitz of Stony Brook University explained, “These were very different, co-existing environments in the same lake[…] This type of oxidant stratification is a common feature of lakes on Earth, and now we’ve found it on Mars. The diversity of environments in this Martian lake would have provided multiple opportunities for different types of microbes to survive.”

The scientists also evaluated the fineness of the sediment, meaning the sizes of individual particles of dirt, dust and sand. Curiosity found larger grains near the edges of the lake where sediments from incoming rivers and streams would have fed it, and smaller ones in what would have been the deep lakebed, which is consistent with particles dropping out of the water as the current slows down. “We could tell something was going on,” Hurowitz said in a statement. “What was causing iron minerals to be one flavor in one part of the lake and another flavor in another part of the lake? We had an ‘Aha!’ moment when we realized that the mineral information and the bedding-thickness information mapped perfectly onto each other in a way you would expect from a stratified lake with a chemical boundary between shallow water and deeper water.”

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Outdoor Kitchens

Hot Wing Business Opportunities Prove To Be A Hot New Trend

By Candice Clem

Only a decade or two ago, a buffalo wing sounded like a rather odd and anatomically incorrect piece of meat, but those days are long past. Now, the buffalo wing/hot wing is one of the most popular food items in America, spreading across the nation at breakneck speed as more and more people find how much they enjoy eating chicken wings and legs doused in a variety of mouth-scorching sauces. This New York treat has become so popular that entrepreneurs from all corners of the nation are opening franchises that seem to do exceptionally well. If taking a bite of this hot market sounds like just the ticket to your personal business success, take a look at the following list of hot wing business opportunities.

Wings Over

Established in 1998 by two brave entrepreneurs on the campus of the University of Massachusetts, Wings Over has taken a giant leap into the franchising world that has already paid off for everyone involved. Their claim to fame is the seriousness that all employees bring to each franchise business. Franchisors, franchisees, management, and staff are all dedicated to doing everything in their power to bring the best they can to their guests, from the very first visit. And franchisees can take that to the bank, because from day one, the franchisor promises to respond to all questions and concerns as quickly as possible. Wings Over is in it for everyones good.

Wing Zone


If you want to talk about wing quality, Wing Zone is the place to start; even among wing franchises, this 2-time Buffalo Wing Festival award winner has been noted as an exceptional maker of delicious chicken wings and sauces. Their greatness, however, is not limited to the quality of their food; part of what makes them so innovative in the industry is their concentration on take-out/delivery and not in-house dining. At no cost to the amount of business that comes through the doors, this choice cuts down overhead costs immensely, which means a greater profit ratio for the franchise.


Despite its fun in-store dcor and atmosphere, which is composed of 1940s-style aviation memorabilia and old plane parts, Wingstop is a serious franchise opportunity. At the very beginning, new franchise owners go through a 3-week intensive training, along with their general managers, to learn how to run a wing business the right way. Then, to show what theyve learned, franchisees and managers are given the opportunity to operate a mock-up Wingstop restaurant at the end of training. Its an original and very beneficial exercise for everyone involved, only proving again why this business has exploded to 450 restaurants in only 14 years and continues to grow at a rate of 30% each year.

Buffalo Wings & Rings

With 20 years of business under their belt, this business is one of the oldest wing restaurants available, which, if nothing else, should tell you that they have a powerful and long-lasting business model that you can trust. In line with that strong business model, they also have a very strong training system that the franchisor provides. After which, the franchisor also takes care of initial employee needs that his franchisees have, providing each with enough staff to run on for the first 3 weeks of business. This affords the franchisee time to amass his own staff without having to settle for sub-par employees. And with more of a menu than mere wings, the appeal to the public is wider than many wing restaurants.

Wingers Grill & Bar

The name implies a focus on hot wings, and while that menu item is a cherished one, Wingers Grill & Bar is more of a full diner than a wing shop, with a menu that covers a wider variety of foods and a restaurant design that includes a full-service bar. Part of the Slaymaker Group, owner of Tony Romas and T.G.I. Fridays, Wingers Grill & Bar is held by a company that excels in making and sustaining restaurants that have good public appeal and a lasting business system. Specifically, the small size and relatively small menu make this a far more cost-effective restaurant than most, something that any business owner will appreciate.

The variety of food franchises available is extraordinary these days, seemingly endless, and wings are one corner of it that seems to be taking root for the long haul. If you like the food, like the industry, and have a knack for hospitality, seriously consider getting in on the wing trend while theres still room.

About the Author: Find more wing franchises at


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Fire hits Egyptian national theatre

Sunday, September 28, 2008

A fire on Saturday destroyed the main hall of the Egyptian National Theatre in Cairo. Six people have been injured including three firefighters. No one was in the theatre at the time as it was closed for the weekend.

Egyptian state culture minister Faruq Hosni, said “The fire broke out in the main hall of the theatre. It was probably caused by an electrical short circuit.”

Ataba Square was filled with thick white smoke just after sunset as a total of 22 fire engines responded. Egyptian riot police were also deployed to keep crowds of people back while the firefighters attempted to extinguish the blaze.

A civil defence officer described the fire as being almost contained, following a brief burst of high winds which blew the flames towards neighbouring shops and other buildings. The three firefighters were admitted to hospital suffering from the effects of smoke inhalation.

Brig. Gen. Nasr Zakaria, a senior officer of the Civil Defence Service, later confirmed Minister Hosni’s earlier statement, telling MENA (Middle East News Agency) that an electrical short had indeed caused the fire, by triggering an explosion in the theatres air conditioning system.

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Woman hospitalized after allegedly stabbing daughter to death at Fort MacArthur, California

Wednesday, July 14, 2010

Location of San Pedro, California. Image: Paul Robinson.

On Friday, the Los Angeles Police Department arrested and charged a woman with murder, after she reportedly stabbed her ten-year-old daughter to death at the Air Force base Fort MacArthur residential facility in San Pedro, California. The girl’s father is a former member of the Navy.

The 49-year-old mother, Bong Sook Chavez, allegedly slit her daughter’s wrists and neck. Chavez slit her own wrists after attacking her daughter. In a statement issued on Monday, investigators say Chavez likely stabbed her daughter while she was asleep in bed.

Deputy Chief Pat Gannon told the Los Angeles Times Chavez has a history of mental health problems. According to Gannon, “The father was able to get the weapon away from her.” The father awoke at around 2:30 a.m. local time to find Chavez attacking her daughter.

The daughter, Quesi Chavez, later died at the University of Southern California’s Medical Center as a result of her wounds. As of Monday, the mother remained in the hospital in stable condition, but was scheduled to appear in court yesterday.

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Doctor to be charged after mother’s death in Ohio

Thursday, July 28, 2005

A doctor who worked at Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania will be charged with aggravated murder after her mother was found dead in the trunk of her car Wednesday, authorities in Ohio say. Dr. Malar Balasubramanian, 29, was found in Blue Ash, Ohio, a suburb approximately 15 miles north of Cincinnati lying on the ground beside the road in a T-shirt and underwear in an apparently heavily medicated state. She directed officers to her black Oldsmobile Intrigue which was 500 feet away. There, they found the body of Saroja Balasubramanian, 53, covered with blood-stained blankets. Police said that the body appeared to have been there for about a day.

Dr. Malar Balasubramanian, formerly of the Squirrel Hill neighborhood of Pittsburgh, worked at Children’s Hospital from June 2001 to June 2004, according to Melanie Finnigan, a hospital spokeswoman. She had recently returned from work in India.

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What You Need To Know Before You Buy A Baby Gate

What You Need To Know Before You Buy A Baby Gate


Crissy Gholar


baby gate or stair gate

is a barrier that can be placed in various spots in the house. Most often, child safety gates are used to keep children from going up and down the stairs without supervision. Gates can also be used to confine a child in a particular room so that the child can be easily supervised. In this way, baby safety gates can help to keep young children safe by preventing falls or injuries. Sometimes, pet owners use gates to keep their pets confined during the potty training process.

There are many different types of gates ranging in price from inexpensive to very expensive. A wooden baby gate is usually the most inexpensive type of gate while a retractable stair gate can be on the other end of the spectrum.


Before you purchase a gate, you will need to determine why you need the gate. If you want a gate to section off the kitchen from the living room, or if you want a gate to keep your child from accessing the cellar stairs, you will need two different types of gates.


sliding gate

can be simply positioned between two walls using the suction cups on either side of the gate. Then, a bar is pressed down to keep the sides of the gate securely against the wall. This gate can be adjusted according to the space between the walls. However, if a child or animal pushes against the gate with enough force, the gate can fall down. These gates also tend to have a plastic mesh weave spanning the width of the gate. This mesh can be damaged by children and pets after it has been used for a while. Because of this, it would not be a good gate to use to prevent your child from falling down cellar stairs. Another downside of using this kind of gate can also put scuff marks on walls when it is used.


retractable stair gate

is mounted to a wall or other secure surface using screws located on the sides of the gate. The gate can be swung open or retracted when needed. This gate is good to use as a barrier to prevent children from accessing stairs as it is more secure than the sliding gate. In addition, the gate will not scuff the walls.

There are some drawbacks about using a retractable gate. One of the biggest drawbacks is that the wall will need some repair after you are finished with the gate. For example, you will need to fill in the screw holes. This gate can also not be moved easily from spot to spot as it is mounted to the wall.

As you can see, each type of gate has good and bad points. This is why it is so important to carefully choose the right gate for your particular situation and for your budget. Of course, no safety gate should ever serve as a substitute for proper supervision of a child. A safety gate can be an effective tool to use in order to keep your child or your pet safe from common household hazards until he or she is old enough to avoid those hazards.

baby safety gates

baby safety gate

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Romney announces presidential candidacy

Tuesday, February 13, 2007

Mitt Romney announced his presidential candidacy yesterday.

Former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney formally announced his presidential candidacy yesterday outside of Detroit.

“I don’t believe Washington can be transformed from within by lifetime politicians, there’ve been too many deals, too many favors, too many entanglements — and too little real world experience managing, guiding, leading,” said Romney, who was a successful businessman before entering politics. Romney focused on his leadership experience outside of government.

Romney made the announcement at the Henry Ford Museum, something which the National Jewish Democratic Council heavily criticized saying that they were, “deeply troubled by Governor Romney’s choice . . . to kick (off) his presidential campaign on the former estate of a well-known and outspoken anti-Semite and xenophobe.” A spokesman for Romney said, “Governor Romney believes our country needs to put innovation at the forefront if we are to ensure a stronger, safer and more prosperous America, the Ford Museum embodies that bold, innovative spirit.”

Romney’s record as a moderate and his Latter-day Saint faith are expected to be his primary campaign challenges.

Romney, born in Detroit, the son of former Michigan Governor, Republican Presidential candidate, and automotive pioneer George Romney, attended Cranbrook School of Michigan and Harvard Business and Law Schools. Romney ran against senior Massachusetts senator and Kennedy family member, Ted Kennedy. Romney won 41% percent of the vote against Kennedy in the closest election in Kennedy’s entire tenure in the United States Senate. Romney was also CEO of the Salt Lake Organizing Committee which was in charge of planning the 2002 Winter Olympics from 1999 to 2002, he took charge after the 2002 Winter Olympic bid scandal. He also sat on the board of Massachusetts-based office supply giant, Staples, Inc.

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Australian House of Representatives acknowledges Cyclone Larry efforts

Wednesday, March 29, 2006The Australian House of Representatives today acknowledged the impact of the recent devastating Cyclone Larry and the efforts of the support given to the residents and communities of north Queensland in order to restore normal life.

Phillip Ruddock (Liberal, Berowra) moved a motion expressing this after Question Time today, which included a description of the devastation wrought on the area, the response by the Australian Government and the Australian Defence Force, and thanked the efforts of people for their “willingness to roll up their sleeves and get on with the job of cleaning up and rebuilding their towns and centres.”

The Leader of the Opposition, Kim Beazley (Labor, Brand) supported the motion, and congratulated the move to put General Peter Cosgrove in charge of operations, stating that soldiers “know how to work through logistics issues…how to work around officialdom or blockages”, praised both local federal and state members of Parliament, and especially the Labor Queensland state premier, Peter Beattie.

Bob Katter (Independent, Kennedy) was more critical in his speech. Katter thanked Beattie for his immediate response, but also described his confrontation with him and said how first responses were “simply not working”, but also praised Beattie’s decision on Cosgrove. Katter also described how the incident was “the worst natural disaster inAustralian history” and how the banana industry in north Queensland was decimated. Katter went on to describe the financial problems of the people in the region, the “huge gap” between the cost of rebuilding and insurance payouts, also asking “Are we going to pay people virtually nothing to sit on their backsides to do nothing or are we going to pay them a decent wage and have them rebuilding our communities for us?”

The debate is set to continue in the Main Committee, as an opportunity for many more members of the House of Representatives to speak to the motion, without taking up further time in the Chamber.

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Communication Skills Training

Decorative Pocket Folders}

Decorative Pocket Folders


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Egyptian treasures found in ancient tomb

Friday, March 13, 2009

A team of archaeologists excavating an Ancient Egyptian tomb have discovered golden jewelry in a recently-discovered lower chamber at the Valley of the Kings burial site in Luxor, Egypt.

Two golden rings and five golden earrings were found in the tomb of Djehuty, an 18th-dynasty official of Queen Hatshepsut, and were probably the property of Djehuty or his family.

The discovery was announced by Farouk Hosni, Egypt’s current Minister of Culture.

The Valley of the Kings

Djehuty was overseer of the treasury and overseer of works for the Queen. Hatshepsut reigned approximately 1479–1458 BCE. Djehuty was responsible for managing the huge amounts of precious goods brought in from Egypt’s military expedition to Punt in the Horn of Africa and the vast building projects of Hatshepsut which have made the female pharaoh one of the most-remembered of any from ancient Egypt.

Djehuty died after Hatshepsut did, sometime during the reign of Thutmosis III. Both Hatshepsut’s and Thutmosis’s names are recorded on the tomb. In a fashion typical of ancient Egyptian rivalries, Hatshepsut’s name was partly obscured on the monument over the tomb sometime after the queen’s death.

The team, led by José Manuel Galán of the National Research Center (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC), in Madrid, Spain, had been excavating the tomb, designated TT11 and located in the necropolis of Dra’ Abu el-Naga’, since 2002. While much of Djehuty’s funerary equipment was lost to fire in antiquity, the lower chamber of his tomb was concealed at the end of a three-meter shaft and discovered at the end of 2008.

A superficial description of the tomb itself was recorded almost two hundred years ago by 19th-century French Egyptologist Jean-François Champollion, rubble blocking the entrance hindered excavation until the 21st century. In that time, emphasis in Egyptology has changed from the cataloging of treasures to the investigation of ancient culture, life and religion.

Since excavation began, Djehuty’s tomb has yielded a number of surprises. It was discovered that the tomb was re-used repeatedly up to and during the Greco-Roman period. There is an unusual face-on depiction of pharaoh Thutmosis III hunting ducks, and the mummy of a young, bejewelled, as-yet unidentified woman.

Djehuty was an official of Hatshepsut

In 2007, 44 preserved bunches of flowers thought to be from Djehuty’s funeral were found in the site. In their 8th season of excavation, which ended on February 22, 2009, the team also found considerable evidence that below Djehuty’s tomb is a network of burial sites from the 11th dynasty, four thousand years old.

The lower chamber also displays passages from the Egyptian funerary text the Book of the Dead on its walls and a colorful mural of the goddess Nut, an embodiment of the heavens, on the ceiling. The names of Djehuty and his parents were also intact in the second chamber; the names were defaced in the previously-known first chamber of the tomb, which had also been looted.

According to a press release from Dr. Zahi Hawass, Secretary General of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities, Djehuty’s tomb is only the fifth known decorated burial chamber of the 18th dynasty. An additional unusual feature of the tomb is that its upper chamber is decorated in relief, rather than simply paint. When the excavation is completed, Dr Galán’s team plans to open the site to the public as the carved stoneworks will not be destroyed by tourists’ activities as paint would.

The identification of Djehuty is a complicated one, as a number of officials of the 18th dynasty bore the name, including a general and several governors. The name itself is an alternate transliteration of the name of the Egyptian god usually written in English as Thoth.

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